7 Agitate or Accomodate? 1890-1920
Agitate or Accommodate? Progressive Era2011syl
Between 1890 and 1920, African Americans were treated, in most parts of the south as second-class citizens. Jim Crow laws in public places and lynching kept many African Americans in a place where they had little opportunity or chance to improve their position.
In this position, would you have chosen to agitate, accommodate, or migrate?
¶ 1 Restate the question and state your position as agitator, accommodator or migrator and give one reason why.
¶ 2 Explain the situation of African Americans in the South in 1910 and why this makes you an agitator, accommodator or migratory.
¶ 3 and ¶ 4 Describe two people we studied in class or who were in your book who took the same stand that you are taking and explain what they did.
¶ 5 Evaluate why your choice makes sense in 1910.
On January 21, Martin Luther King Day, go to the Town Hall at 10 for the Ceremony. You will hear Conard’s Billie J give a speech on MLK. Also hear Dr. Stacey K. Close, VP for Equity and Diversity, at Eastern Connecticut State University give the keynote address.
|1/2||Introduction documents||Read: Opening Vignette: Mary Church Terrell and the NACW 321-3
1. What was the main point of the NACW?
2. List their activities to get equality.
3. Tell whether you would have joined and why.
4. Would you see Mary Church Terrell as a role model?
|1/3||Documents||Read Racial Segregation, 323-7
|1/4||Without Sanctuary||The Problem of the Color Line, 327-30
1. What is Pan-Africanism and how did DuBois think it would help blacks?
2. Would you have supported Pan- Africanism? Do you today?
3. African Americans have often felt that by serving in war, they will “earn” their freedom. We learned about this in the movie “Glory.” The same issue arose in the Spanish American War. What happened in Brownsville Texas in 1904?
4. Would you have supported the opinion of Trotter or Washington about this incident? Explain.
|1/7||Lynching||Read Terror and Accomodation,” 316-8 1. List 3 examples that show Ida B Wells was an agitator for racial equality 2. List 3 examples that show that Booker T. Washington was an accomodator? Read Accommodation or Agitation? 330-3
1. Explain Dubois’s “twoness.” Describe a situation
2. Where did blacks’ consciousness come from?
3. List 5 people who helped start the NAACP.
4. How was John Hope Franklin a combination of Washington and DuBois? Explain.
|1/8||Dubois, Washington, etc||Black Culture 333-6
1. What is ragtime? Why is it considered “black music”?
2. Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poetry reached appreciative audiences, inspiring others, such as James Weldon Johnson.
Read Dunbar’s poem on p. 334. What does he mean by “we wear the mask!”
3. How does this relate to Dubois’ idea of “twoness”?
4. Why might some blacks see Jack Johnson as a “traitor?”
|1/9||Dubois, Washington, etc||Black Progress, 336-40
1. What is the difference between the NAACP and the Urban League?
2. Name two churches in Hartford that are predominantly for blacks. Do the churches serve the same role today as before?
|1/10||Black Progress,” continued 340-3
1.Pick one group from page 341. Name it.
2.Tell who founded it and when.
3.Who was their targeted audience?
4.What was their strategy?
5.Would you have belonged?
6.Why do you think the group would/would not be effective?
|1/11||The “New Abolition” 343-5
1.Read DuBois’s Eulogy of Washington. List 3 good things DuBois says about Washington. Then list 3 negatives. What do you think of Washington?
|1/16||Prepare for midterm|
|1/17||Prepare for midterm|
|1/18||Research individual for Black History Month|
|1/24 and 1/25||Midterm Exams Period 4 is on Thursday, Period 1 is on Friday|
1/10/12 Read: Opening Vignette: Mary Church Terrell and the NACW 321-3
In 1896, representatives of forty black women’s clubs met to form the National Association of Colored Women. They honored Harriet Tubman for her leadership in the slave past and selected Mary Church Terrell as president. Adopting “lifting as we climb” as the NACW motto, they echoed Booker T. Washington and the progressive spirit by pledging to build a strong national community through a focus on children and home life.
- What was the main point of the NACW?
- List their activities to get equality.
- Tell whether you would have joined and why.
- Would you see Mary ChurchTerrell as a role model?
1/11/12 Read Racial Segregation, 323-7
That same year, the Supreme Court upheld the Louisiana Separate Car Act, thus shaping American racial policies and limiting black people’s civil rights for more than half a century. Homer Plessy, a New Orleans Creole with one black great-grandfather, had challenged the law by sitting in a car reserved for white people. He and his supporters, the New Orleans Citizens Committee, welcomed the arrest that followed, hoping to use public opinion and the courts to secure equal access to public services. But the district court said the Louisiana’s law did treat black and white people equally: it prohibited both from sitting in integrated cars. The Supreme Court agreed, stating in Plessy v. Ferguson that as long as equal services were provided for black and white people, states could require racial segregation. As a consequence, many states and localities, in the South but also in the North, passed segregation laws that kept white and black people apart in schools, libraries, prisons, hospitals, cemeteries, hotels, theaters, restaurants, and jobs and neighborhoods. Rejecting the notion that enforced separation marked “the colored race with a badge of inferiority,” the Court made “separate but equal” the law of the land. Two years later it upheld Mississippi’s poll tax, opening the way for taxes and tests, such as “grandfather clauses,” that would disfranchise African Americans as well.
- What is a poll tax?
- What is the Grandfather clause?
- What does Disfranchise mean?
In these rulings the court enacted into public policy ideas about racial hierarchies stemming from Darwinian theories and the pseudoscience of eugenics. Progressive aims to improve civilization through social management merged with these ideas to uphold white supremacy. Discouraged, many African Americans concluded that Washington was right-that they had best concentrate on economic progress, not legal and political equality. But in accepting the designation negro, the term scientists used to identify the black race, they also insisted on capitalizing the “N” as a mark of dignity.What is a racial hierarchy?
4. What is a racial hierarchy
5. What is eugenics?
6. Why did blacks want to be called “Negro?” Do you agree?
1/13/12 The Problem of the Color Line, 327-30
“The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line” announced W.E.B. Du Bois at the 1900 Pan-African Conference in London. For him, the line that divided black from white in the United States was one manifestation of a problem that was global. As European nations sanctioned imperialism and the division of Africa into white-ruled colonies, he understood that racism in international politics meant ruthless economic exploitation of dark-skinned peoples. In Pan-Africanism, he sought to coordinate an international stand against racism.
- What is Pan-Africanism and how did DuBois think it would help blacks?
- Would you have supported Pan- Africanism? Do you today?
The recent Spanish-American War exemplified the arrogance that dark-skinned peoples were incapable of self-government and required white direction.
America’s stated purpose of liberating Cuba and the Philippines from Spain was belied when U.S. troops continued to occupy the Philippines despite an uprising that took 14,000 Filipino lives. At home, the war had divided black Americans between those who urged loyalty and those who argued that they were as much in need of independence as the Cubans. The nature of the color line was made clear when an entire black regiment, with many soldiers recently returned from the Philippines, was dishonorably discharged following a shooting incident in Brownsville, Texas. Though President Theodore Roosevelt had raised black hopes by inviting Washington to dine in the White House, he dashed them by prohibiting trial or appeal in this case.
- African Americans have often felt that by serving in war, they will “earn” their freedom. We learned about this in the movie “Glory.” The same issue arose in the Spanish American War. What happened in Brownsville Texas in 1904?
- Would you have supported the opinion of Trotter or Washington about this incident? Explain.
1/17 Accommodation or Agitation? 330-333
The Brownsville incident signified African Americans’ political powerlessness and internal divisions. Washington refrained from public comment, but his passivity weakened his singular influence.
While Washington continued to help black southerners acquire vocational skills, to court white philanthropists, and to promote black enterprise through Republican Party connections, now Du Bois challenged his strategy of accommodation, claiming it kept African Americans from seeking political power and protesting racial injustice. In The Souls of Black Folk, Du Bois perceived that the American Negro “ever fells his Twoness-an American, a Negro.” He ascribed a lyrical, mystical quality to black consciousness and called on the “the Talented Tenth” to lead the race. The rivalry between Washington and Du Bois would dominate black discourse until Washington’s death in 1915.
- Explain Dubois’s “twoness.” Describe a situation
- Where did blacks’ consciousness come from?
In July 1905, Du Bois and other black intellectuals such as journalist William Monroe Trotter and Morehouse College president John Hope met in Niagara Falls, Ontario, to formalize their commitment to agitation as a means for securing equal rights for black citizens. Catalyzed by a race riot in Springfield, Illinois, in 1908, the Niagara Movement attracted the support of white Progressives in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1910. The organization aimed to design test cases that would force the courts to end racial segregation. Du Bois became editor of its magazine, Crisis.
- List 5 people who helped start the NAACP.
- How was John Hope Franklin a combination of Washington and DuBois? Explain.
1/18 Black Culture 333-6
Black culture crossed the color line. International audiences had thrilled to performances of the Fisk Jubilee Singers, and now Scott Joplin’s popular ragtime compositions made him the first black American to earn a living writing music.
- What is ragtime? Why is it considered “black music”?
Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poetry reached appreciative audiences, inspiring others, such as James Weldon Johnson.
- Read Dunbar’s poem on p. 334. What does he mean by “we wear the mask!” How does this relate to Dubois’ idea of “twoness”?
In sports, too, individual black athletes excelled. Cyclist Major Taylor competed with white cyclists and founded the Colored Wheelman’s Association. Baseball, segregated by 1900, offered opportunities for standout players.
Boxer Jack Johnson became a hero to black Americans when he defeated a white boxer known as the “Great White Hope.”
- Why might some blacks see Jack Johnson as a “traitor?”
1/19 Black Progress, 336-40
After Philip A. Payton’s Afro-American Realty Company helped black Americans secure rentals in Harlem, this section of New York became a center of black self-improvement. Here the NAACP set up its office, and the National Urban League, representing a broader spectrum of black society, was founded to tackle issues of working-class city life. The White Rose Mission offered settlement house services to newcomers. But Progressive institutions that sought to improve the social and economic environment were not limited to Harlem. In cities everywhere, churches performed social as well as religious missions, serving as recreation centers, political forums, employment agencies, savings and loan institutions, and incubators of black talent. College fraternities and sororities cemented business partnerships and social networks.
- What is the difference between the NAACP and the Urban League?
- Name two churches in Hartford that are predominantly for blacks. Do the churches serve the same role today as before?
All these organizations instilled black pride.
1/20“Black Progress,” continued 340-3
Leaders with new focuses emerged in Harlem. A. Philip Randolph studied politics and labor organizing. “Chief” Alfred Charles Sam promoted trade between Africans and African Americans and the Christianization of Africa. Du Bois, Carter G. Woodson, and Alain Locke founded the Negro Historical Society of Research, and Woodson established the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, which celebrated the achievements of black Americans in the new Journal of Negro History. Arthur Schomburg collected literary works and visual art by people of African descent. And in 1914 Marcus Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
- Pick one group from page 341. Name it. Tell who founded it and when. Who was their targeted audience? What was their strategy? Would you have belonged? Why do you think the group would/would not be effective?
1/23/12 The “New Abolition” 343-5
Yet as race riots continued, black leaders saw their choices limited to emigration, separate communities within the United States, agitation for full civil and political rights, or accommodation of white supremacy. Du Bois chose agitation, and after 1912 Joel Spingarn, who inaugurated the “New Abolition” movement to abolish segregation, assisted him and the NAACP. Simultaneously, the NAACP worked to remove legal obstacles, and in three successful cases it challenged housing discrimination and outlawed Oklahoma’s grandfather clause. After Washington died, Du Bois sought to end divisions among black leaders at the Amenia Conference. In its statement affirming both liberal and industrial education and a unified attack on segregation and lynching, Trotter perceived a “spring-time of the race’s hopes in America.”
- Read DuBois’s Eulogy of Washington. List 3 good things DuBois says about Washington. Then list 3 negatives. What do you think of Washington?